Universitą degli studi di Pavia


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Courses 2011
Lessons will be taken in february 2011, according to schedules agreed with students.

Photochemical pathways for C-C bond formation
(Prof. M. Fagnoni)

The course will start with a brief introduction on the main concepts of the photochemistry and the importance of such a discipline in the frame of organic synthesis. The effects of the light on the reactivity of organic compounds will be briefly introduced with particular regard to the photomediated hydrogen abstraction and photoinduced electron transfer mechanisms. The synthetic applications devoted to the formation of C-C bonds will follow. Main topics will be the photocatalytic processes (where a photocatalyst is the absorbing specie) and the photoinduced functionalization of the aromatic rings via arylation and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions. In some cases the photochemical approach will be confronted with thermal analogues regarding the efficiency of the process and its environmental impact. (about 18 hours)
Final test: presentation of a bibliographic research performed by PhD student.

Fund hunting in chemistry
(Prof. P. Mustarelli, Prof. G. Zanoni)

The course aims to give the knowedge/espertise needed to apply to national and international calls in the field of chemistry.
Main topics
Search for funding agencies and calls.
Description of national (PRIN, FISR, FIRB, Cariplo) e international (VII PQ, ERC) application forms.
Criteria to prepare the project (state of the art, methods and materials, etc.).
The concepts of Work Project, Task and sub-task (Gantt diagram), Progress Indicators, Deliverables, Milestones, and Risk Management.
Failure analysis.
The role of both local e national research offices and contact points.
The students will be divided in groups. Each group will prepare an application which will be examined by an expert panel.
Duration: 18 hours.
Final test: discussion of the application.

Trasferimento di chiralitĆ in sintesi organica
(Prof. G Desimoni, Prof. G. Faita)

1. Introduction - Nomenclature.
Introductory part introducing basic concepts and terminology of organic stereochemistry.
2. Use of chiral auxiliaries.
Presenting the main chiral auxiliaries (both mono and bidentate) used in diastereolettive synthesis focusing on the results obtained in the Diels-Alder cycloadditions.
3. Asymmetric catalysis in organic synthesis.
The main types of chiral catalysts are discussed and compared; literature survey, and comparison with a reaction taken as a benchmark.
4. Chiral ligands with bis and tris(oxazolines) structure.
Starting from different methods for chiral ligands synthesis, there will be presented how to obtain different catalysts changing the cations, especially in cases where it is available on the X-ray structure. Various types of bis (oxazolines) with different spacers between the two chiral units will be introduced, and tris (oxazolines) in different types of asymmetric synthesis. Different catalytic cycles will be examinated, and when intermediates have been isolated there will be presented the relation to the stereochemical outcome of the enantioselective process.
5. Organocatalysis.
The last part will describe the basic concepts and the synthetic applications when the chiral information carrier is an organic molecule without need of any metal cation.
Duration: 18 hours.
Final Test: Oral examination

Modelling Molecular Properties and Reactivity. An Hitchhiker's Guide to Computational Chemistry
(Prof. M. Freccero)

The course will briefly address the foundation of computational chemistry for the evaluation of properties and reactivity of molecular systems both in gas and condensed phases. Practical tutorials, on dedicated PCs, will be performed using commercial software (Gaussian g03, Amber 7, GAMESS-US), tackling the following issues:
Preparation of an input and analysis of an output.
Optimization of molecular geometry in ground states
Mapping potential energy surfaces (PES) for chemical reactions: location of stationary points related to reagents, products, intermediates and transition structures.
Simulation of reaction kinetics and thermodynamics
Simulation of IR Spectra
Evaluation of solvation effects on PES.
Computational evaluation acidity and basicity in condensed phase (PCM models)
Problems and solutions for open shell species.
Suggested Books:
1) Essential of Computational Chemistry. Theory and Models. Christopher J. Cramer. Ed. Wiley. Second Edition. Ed. Wiley 2004.
2) Computational Organic Chemistry. Steven M. Bachrach. Ed. Wiley 2007.
Course duration: 18 hours.
Final evaluation: brief written report concerning a computational simulation focused on molecular properties and/or reactivity.

Materials and devices for energy storage and management
(Prof. G. Spinolo, Prof. A. Magistris)

The main topics are: Defects in crystalline solids; overview of crystalline electrolytes; Basic aspects of Solid state electrochemistry; Polymer electrolytes; Fuel cells; Electrochemical sensors; Semiconductor sensors.
Course duration: 22 hours.
Final evaluation: Oral exam.

History of Chemistry in the XX century
Lecturers: P. Ferloni, L. Garlaschelli, G.G. Mellerio

The course will deal with selected topics in the development of Chemistry in the XX century.
An interdisciplinary approach will be used in the systematic exposition of the subjects.
The lectures will be held from 4 to 6 p.m. in a small lecture hall in the General Chemistry building, 1st floor.
The timetable and programme are as follows:
Foreword. Historical methods and tools. P. Ferloni Feb. 1st
Chemistry between Botanics and Pharmacy G.G. Mellerio Feb. 2nd
Chemistry in the research of Camillo Golgi P. Ferloni Feb. 3rd
Topics in the classical chemistry of the XX century G.G. Mellerio Feb. 7th
The development of the Italian chemical industry G.G. Mellerio Feb. 8th
Remarkable industrial syntheses P. Ferloni Feb. 9th
Electrochemistry P. Ferloni Feb. 10th
The fate of some organic molecules in the XX century L. Garlaschelli Feb. 14th
The fate of some organic molecules in the XX century L. Garlaschelli Feb. 15th
Concluding remarks P. Ferloni Feb. 16th
Guided tour, Museum for the History of the University P. Ferloni, G.G. Mellerio Feb. 17th, 3 p.m.
Suggested reading: Luigi Cerruti, Bella e potente, Editori Riuniti, Roma 2003
Course duration: 18 hours.
Final evaluation: oral exam.

Sensors, biosensors and electronic noses
(Prof. M.Pesavento, Prof. R. Biesuz)

The modern chemical and biochemical sensors are based on the interaction of the molecule of interest with selective receptors of chemical or biochemical origin, and on the efficient transduction of a signal consequent to the formation of the adduct. Some widely applied receptors will be presented, both of biological origin as proteins (antibodies, enzymes) and nucleic acid (DNA, RNA, aptamers), and synthesized by chemical methods, as for example the molecular imprinted polymers. Different techniques for the signal transduction will be described, based on the use of markers or probes, and label-free. The selectivity of such devices will be discussed.
A different approach can be used to obtain the required selectivity, consisting in the use of different poorly selective sensors combined in an array. The responses of the individual sensors are analyzed simultaneously with multivariate methods, obtaining both qualitative and quantitative information. These devices are often called electronic noses due their close resemblance with the corresponding "natural sensors". Some useful methods of multivariate analysis will be described.
Lessons: 22 hours
Final evaluation: exam consisting in the presentation and discussion of a research paper reported in the scientific literature.

Modern spectroscopies
(Prof. P.Ghigna, Prof. P. Mustarelli)

The first part of the course is devoted to the description of the spectroscopic techniques to investigate the electronic, atomic and magnetic structure of the matter, that are based on synchrotron radiation. The XAFS (EXAFS, XANES, ReflEXAFS, SEXAFS) XES, XMCD ed LMCD techniques will be examined in detail.
The second part of the course will be concerned with some of the most modern NMR applications to the solid state. After some recalls of the Hamiltonian at the basis of the NMR line in the solid state, the following topics will be treated: 1) two-dimensional NMR (MQMAS) to investigate the medium range order and to speciate structural macro-groups; 2) hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR to study polymeric and nanoporous materials; 3) perspectives and limits of the NMR microscopy on nuclei other than 1H; 4) functional (electrophoretic, electrochemical) NMR.
Duration: 22 ore.
Final test: oral exam
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