Universitą degli studi di Pavia


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Courses 2012
Lessons will be taken in february 2012, according to schedules agreed with students.

NEWS: International Course "New Concepts in Catalysis"

Advanced Diffraction Techniques for Structural Investigation in Material Science
(Prof. D. Capsoni, Prof. L. Malavasi)

Aim of this course is to give an overview about the advanced techniques for the structural characterization of different classes of materials. We will first give an introduction about diffraction methods and then we will focus on more specific topics. These will include: combined x-ray and neutron diffraction collection; ab-initio structural determination from powder diffraction data; magnetic structure determination; in-situ and time-resolved techniques; local structure determination from total scattering data. The different topics will be presented with basic theoretical information while a more detailed description will be given regarding the capabilities of each method, considerable "practical" details about data collection and analysis, and with a large choice of examples. Some "hands-on" sessions on data analysis methods of diffraction data are also planned.
Duration: 18 hours.
Final Test: Oral examination

Photochemical pathways for C-C bond formation
(Prof. M. Fagnoni)

The course will start with a brief introduction on the main concepts of the photochemistry and the importance of such a discipline in the frame of organic synthesis. The effects of the light on the reactivity of organic compounds will be briefly introduced with particular regard to the photomediated hydrogen abstraction and photoinduced electron transfer mechanisms. The synthetic applications devoted to the formation of C-C bonds will follow. Main topics will be the photocatalytic processes (where a photocatalyst is the absorbing specie) and the photoinduced functionalization of the aromatic rings via arylation and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions. In some cases the photochemical approach will be confronted with thermal analogues regarding the efficiency of the process and its environmental impact. (about 18 hours)
Final test: presentation of a bibliographic research performed by PhD student.

Fund hunting in chemistry
(Prof. P. Mustarelli, Prof. G. Zanoni)

The course aims to give the knowedge/espertise needed to apply to national and international calls in the field of chemistry.
Main topics
Search for funding agencies and calls.
Description of national (PRIN, FISR, FIRB, Cariplo) e international (VII PQ, ERC) application forms.
Criteria to prepare the project (state of the art, methods and materials, etc.).
The concepts of Work Project, Task and sub-task (Gantt diagram), Progress Indicators, Deliverables, Milestones, and Risk Management.
Failure analysis.
The role of both local e national research offices and contact points.
The students will be divided in groups. Each group will prepare an application which will be examined by an expert panel.
Duration: 18 hours.
Final test: discussion of the application.

Chiral Transfer in Organic Synthesis
(Prof. G Desimoni, Prof. G. Faita)

1. Introduction - Nomenclature.
Introductory part introducing basic concepts and terminology of organic stereochemistry.
2. Use of chiral auxiliaries.
Presenting the main chiral auxiliaries (both mono and bidentate) used in diastereolettive synthesis focusing on the results obtained in the Diels-Alder cycloadditions.
3. Asymmetric catalysis in organic synthesis.
The main types of chiral catalysts are discussed and compared; literature survey, and comparison with a reaction taken as a benchmark.
4. Chiral ligands with bis and tris(oxazolines) structure.
Starting from different methods for chiral ligands synthesis, there will be presented how to obtain different catalysts changing the cations, especially in cases where it is available on the X-ray structure. Various types of bis (oxazolines) with different spacers between the two chiral units will be introduced, and tris (oxazolines) in different types of asymmetric synthesis. Different catalytic cycles will be examinated, and when intermediates have been isolated there will be presented the relation to the stereochemical outcome of the enantioselective process.
5. Organocatalysis.
The last part will describe the basic concepts and the synthetic applications when the chiral information carrier is an organic molecule without need of any metal cation.
Duration: 18 hours.
Final Test: Oral examination

Modelling Molecular Properties and Reactivity. An Hitchhiker's Guide to Computational Chemistry
(Prof. M. Freccero)

The course will briefly address the foundation of computational chemistry for the evaluation of properties and reactivity of molecular systems both in gas and condensed phases. Practical tutorials, on dedicated PCs, will be performed using commercial software (Gaussian g03, Amber 7, GAMESS-US), tackling the following issues:
Preparation of an input and analysis of an output.
Optimization of molecular geometry in ground states
Mapping potential energy surfaces (PES) for chemical reactions: location of stationary points related to reagents, products, intermediates and transition structures.
Simulation of reaction kinetics and thermodynamics
Simulation of IR Spectra
Evaluation of solvation effects on PES.
Computational evaluation acidity and basicity in condensed phase (PCM models)
Problems and solutions for open shell species.
Suggested Books:
1) Essential of Computational Chemistry. Theory and Models. Christopher J. Cramer. Ed. Wiley. Second Edition. Ed. Wiley 2004.
2) Computational Organic Chemistry. Steven M. Bachrach. Ed. Wiley 2007.
Course duration: 18 hours.
Final evaluation: brief written report concerning a computational simulation focused on molecular properties and/or reactivity.

Materials and devices for energy storage and management
(Prof. G. Spinolo, Prof. A. Magistris)

The main topics are: Defects in crystalline solids; overview of crystalline electrolytes; Basic aspects of Solid state electrochemistry; Polymer electrolytes; Fuel cells; Electrochemical sensors; Semiconductor sensors.
Course duration: 22 hours.
Final evaluation: Oral exam.

History of Chemistry in the XX century
Lecturers: P. Ferloni, L. Garlaschelli, G.G. Mellerio

The course will deal with selected topics in the development of Chemistry in the XX century.
An interdisciplinary approach will be used in the systematic exposition of the subjects.
The lectures will be held from 4 to 6 p.m. in a small lecture hall in the General Chemistry building, 1st floor.
The timetable and programme are as follows:
Foreword. Historical methods and tools.
Chemistry between Botanics and Pharmacy
Chemistry in the research of Camillo Golgi
Topics in the classical chemistry of the XX century
The development of the Italian chemical industry
Remarkable industrial syntheses
The fate of some organic molecules in the XX century
The fate of some organic molecules in the XX century
Concluding remarks
Guided tour, Museum for the History of the University
Suggested reading: Luigi Cerruti, Bella e potente, Editori Riuniti, Roma 2003
Course duration: 18 hours.
Final evaluation: oral exam.

Sensors, biosensors and electronic noses
(Prof. M.Pesavento, Prof. R. Biesuz)

The modern chemical and biochemical sensors are based on the interaction of the molecule of interest with selective receptors of chemical or biochemical origin, and on the efficient transduction of a signal consequent to the formation of the adduct. Some widely applied receptors will be presented, both of biological origin as proteins (antibodies, enzymes) and nucleic acid (DNA, RNA, aptamers), and synthesized by chemical methods, as for example the molecular imprinted polymers. Different techniques for the signal transduction will be described, based on the use of markers or probes, and label-free. The selectivity of such devices will be discussed.
A different approach can be used to obtain the required selectivity, consisting in the use of different poorly selective sensors combined in an array. The responses of the individual sensors are analyzed simultaneously with multivariate methods, obtaining both qualitative and quantitative information. These devices are often called electronic noses due their close resemblance with the corresponding "natural sensors". Some useful methods of multivariate analysis will be described.
Lessons: 22 hours
Final evaluation: exam consisting in the presentation and discussion of a research paper reported in the scientific literature.

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