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Courses 2013
Courses 2013

Chemistry Curriculum

Photochemical pathways for C-C bond formation (6 CFU)
Prof. M. Fagnoni
The course will start with a brief introduction on the main concepts of the photochemistry and the importance of such a discipline in the frame of organic synthesis. The effects of the light on the reactivity of organic compounds will be briefly introduced with particular regard to the photomediated hydrogen abstraction and photoinduced electron transfer mechanisms. The synthetic applications devoted to the formation of C-C bonds will follow. Main topics will be the photocatalytic processes (where a photocatalyst is the absorbing species) and the photoinduced functionalization of aromatic rings via arylation and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions. The use of visible light to promote organic reactions will complete the program. In some cases the photochemical approach will be confronted with thermal analogues regarding the efficiency of the process and its environmental impact.

Chirality Transfer in Organic Synthesis (6 CFU)
Prof. Giuseppe Faita
The course is focused on the asymmetric synthesis. After a general introduction, it will be inferred the potentialities of the different synthetic approaches (use of chiral auxiliaries, chiral catalysts, and organocatalysts) in the enantiocontrolled formation of new C-C and C-X bonds. Specific deepening will be devoted to the use of bis(oxazolines) as chiral ligands in the asymmetric catalysis of both the Diels-Alder reactions and the 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions.

Storia della chimica nel XX secolo (6 CFU)
Prof.: G.G. Mellerio

Sensors, biosensors and electronic noses (6 CFU)
Prof: M. Pesavento, R. Biesuz
Chemo and biosensors are based on the interaction between the molecule of interest and a suitable receptor. The sensor is constituted by the integration of the adduct formation with the transduction of the signal generated by the interaction. Some of the presently most used receptors will be described, i.e. biomolecules as proteins (antibodies, enxymes) and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, aptamers). A particular kind of synthetical solid receptors, i.e. the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) will be presented too. MIPs represent an interesting class of biomimetic receptors, with noticeable benefits with respect to the biological molecules. The most used transduction techniques, both based on markers and label-free, will be briefly described.
A very good selectivity is obtained using the bio or biomimetic receptors. A different approach is based on the simultaneous use of several sensors not very specific. Devices of this kind are often indicated as “electronic noses” or “electronic tongues”, depending on the phase in which the determination is carried out. The responses of the single sensor are analyzed by chemometric approaches. Some methods will be presented.
The course is constituted by 24 hours.
Final exam: presentation and discussion of a recent research paper concerning the issues of the course.

Pharmacy Curriculum

Innovative analytical methologies in drug discovery (4 CFU)
Prof: E. Calleri
Course description:
The aim of the course is to provide essential knowledge on the most important approaches used to characterize drug–protein binding (separative and non-separative methods). The main objectives are:
1) description of the principle of each method with its inherent strengths and weaknesses in the different steps of the drug discovery process (bioaffinity methods, mass spectrometry based-method, microcalorimetry-based methods, etc.);
2) to present case studies where information on binding affinity ranges, accessibility, material consumption, and throughput are given in order to choose the most suitable approach from among the wealth of methods presented. Experts on these fields will be invited.
Proprietą fisiche di polveri (2 CFU)
Prof.: F. Ferrari
To provide deep knowledge on physical properties of pharmaceutical powders, in view of their use for solid and semi-solid dosage forms formulation.
Fundamental properties of powders:
- particle size, particle size distribution: measuring systems, presentation of results (frequency and cumulative distributions), log-normal distribution, meaning and calculation of statistic mean diameters;
- particle shape: definitions and measuring systems (geometric shape factors, dynamic shape factors);
- surface area: theory, measuring systems based on permeability or gas adsorption.
Derived properties of powders:
- packing properties (measure of bulk and tapped density according to Pharmacopoeias), calculation of Carr and Hausner indexes;
- flow properties (measure of the repose angle in static and dynamic conditions), measure of the tensile strength of cohesive powders (Jenike cell, inclined plane).
Factors affecting packing and flow properties: particle size and distribution, presence of fines, particle shape.
A. Martin "Physical Pharmacy" 4th Ed, Lea & Febiger, 2004
J.T Carstensen ”Advanced pharmaceutical solids”, Marcel Dekker”; 2001
M.E. Aulton “Pharmaceutics: the Science of Dosage Form Design, 3rd Ed, Churchill Livingstone, 2007

Multivariate Statistical Analysis applied to nutraceutical products (2 CFU)
Prof.: M. Daglia
The course offers an overview of Multivariate Statistical Analysis applied to the nutraceutical industry. The main treated topics of Multivariate Statistical Analysis are:
1) Design of Experiment (DOE) as the best strategy for efficient experimentation: applications in the formulation development and analytical control of nutraceutical products.
2) Experimental Designs for the selection of homogeneous samples applied to shelf-life studies.
3) Multivariate Statistical Methods for the analysis of chemical, physical and sensory properties.
4) Multivariate innovative approaches to determine the main characteristics of nutraceuticals.

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